The Good Old Days

Looking back, I remember a better time- a time when firmware wasn’t digitally signed. There was no need for SHSH blobs and TinyUmbrella. In this technological adolescence, I feel that Apple has not only gotten wise to what we should be able to do freely, but like jailbreaking itself, they are restricting us from doing as and what we wish with our hardware.

It upsets me that they continue to have such a stranglehold over their users. So much so, that I didn’t buy the iPhone 6. No. My wife surprised me. I abhor every iOS after 6. It was clean, graphically pleasing, and didn’t follow the tenet that the world is flat- the direction every GUI seems to be following.

There was once a video, which I would be hard-pressed to locate, that showed an iPad changing through multiple iOSs. It was amazing! The iPad was plugged into a computer and each time the commands were executed, it would display code and such on the iPad before loading the chosen iOS. It went all the way to iOS 7! Sadly, the video was taken down, and this is all that remains.

There’s nothing I would not do to make this possible…for all of us- if only I knew where to start.

Thanks for reading!


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Schrödinger’s Cat: A Personal Essay

Writing is a means of expression, which I am extremely passionate about. Summarizing my journal is difficult, due large in part to the facing of my own dysfunctions. Condensing six weeks worth of daily experiences into one thousand words is not an inconvenience, moreover it is extremely difficult insomuch as it disregards a great deal of pertinent information. As far back in time, that I am able to trace why I am the way I am, I look to my grandmother as the archetype. This is not a pleasant thing; moreover she could be most aptly compared to the queen in a beehive where she bestows her negative qualities to the workers- the workers being her ten children. This does not fall into the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) or Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) models, as they do not believe that delving into one’s childhood is necessary- this would be more of a psychoanalytic modality and Freudian in nature. Allow this to be stated at the commencement- I agree with all one hundred points in the irrational beliefs inventory. So, there the quandary presents itself. Not a single trait was found to be irrational. Most of all, none of them encapsulated me as a person, or challenged me to reflect on my own inadequacies. What made keeping a journal so helpful was that I was able to document how I was feeling. It was also possible to concentrate on the emotions I was experiencing during my writing, in order to discern whether or not they were intrinsic or external. In other words, discovering who or what was causing me to feel a specific emotion, gave greater insight into the CBT and REBT models.

In my journal, I disclosed a paradox that I am unable to quantify. The paradox has to do with deceased loved ones. More than often, I reach for the phone to call someone, or ask my wife about someone. What happens is that I immediately retract my question or cease dialing the phone because the memory of their death defeats the impulse to contact them. This is akin to a song I wrote, both as a tribute, but also as a release. The song is entitled “Schrödinger’s Cat,” and the complete explanation is not necessary for this body of work, but briefly stated; it is a paradox, which deals with death and perception. However, I am unable to see this as an irrational belief, but more of a cognitive dysfunction. While writing in the journal, I made a list of the five people that are involved in this paradox. As I did this, I realized that the grieving process may have not ended, or was never acknowledged as a necessary component of healing. In my life, it is an absolute fact that I do not have time to seek appropriate counseling, or be allotted time to grieve. This could be attributed to my employer or my responsibilities as a husband and father of two. Either way, I now know that a healthy grieving process is necessary if I am to vanquish this cognitive inconsistency. A cognitive behavioral counseling session is not something that I believe that I need, as I am able to accept that this paradox, or inconsistency exists and is vulnerable to extinction.

At no time have I ever been diagnosed with depression. Depression is an always-present comorbidity with persons who suffer from anxiety and or panic disorder. That last statement is absolutely false, as I am living proof that one can exist without the other. It is a blanket statement used to justify treating all sufferers of anxiety with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, which are non-addictive medications and have never helped me. The rationale is that the medications that make the greatest impact are associated with addiction, dependence and tolerance. What’s more, is that this approach does not look at HPA axis dysfunction or other underlying biochemical imbalances, which more than often lead to an anxious state, or a complete panic attack of immeasurable proportion. The flight or fight mechanism is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system, and the parasympathetic nervous system is unable to override the former. In my journal, I became more aware that if my suffering is attributed to an inherent flaw, or my own unique neurochemistry, then this is all attributed to probability. Taken directly from my journal, if my mother contained one allele responsible for anxiety, and my absentee father possessed a complimentary allele, then they would have the highest probability of creating a child who would be predetermined to have the trait.

Scientists call its two alleles Val158 and Met158. Depending on ethnicity, more or less half the population carries one copy of each. People carrying two copies of the Met158 allele of the COMT gene showed a significantly stronger startle reflex in the unpleasant-picture condition than did carriers of either two copies of Val158 allele or one copy of each. The two-Met carriers also disclosed greater anxiety on a standard personality test (Montag et al., 2008).

The process of writing everyday pulled these new discoveries from areas of my mind that I may have never accessed. Simply stated, it was a revelation, because for the first time I was able to look in the mirror and tell myself that none of this is my fault.

There were aspects of my psyche that became apparent, some of which I had never thought of again. It immediately reminded me of my favorite quotes from the late French writer, Émile Zola, which states: “If you shut up truth and bury it under the ground, it will but grow, and gather to itself such explosive power that the day it bursts through it will blow up everything in its way.” From this exercise, in recording my daily thoughts, obsessions, flaws and cognitive distortions, it has not provided me with a primer on how to correct them, only to accept that they exist and perhaps something may be done to be rid of them one day. Albert Ellis was a genius, and if he could correct his irrational beliefs, without employing the help of another, then it is safe to state that anything is possible. However, will this benefit a client?

Both Ellis and myself have nothing to hide and like Émile Zola do not wish to bury the truth. Clients may not be as forthcoming with information, fail to write everyday or even weekly. If one does not desire to make a change, simply stated, change will not occur. However, there may be others who are cooperative and see the benefit in keeping a journal, as it allows one, as it did for me, to be completely forthcoming, while simultaneously keeping a written record of the one’s issues. Again, complacency and an apathetic personality will achieve nothing and this exercise is for naught. I however, found it to be a great insight into my daily issues, as previously mentioned, and will continue to keep a journal chronicling my anxiety- looking for patterns, triggers and situations in an effort to regain my life back. I look forward to a life without medicine and I thank you for helping me explore myself better than I thought possible.


Montag, C., Buckholtz, J. W., Hartmann, P., Merz, M., Burk, C., Hennig, J., & Reuter, M.

(2008). COMT genetic variation affects fear processing: Psychophysiological evidence. Behavioral Neuroscience, 122(4), 901-909. doi: 10.1037/0735-7044.122.4.901

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My Favorite Person: A Tribute To Stephen “Steve” Smerker

Stephen SmerkerI remember him calling me back in 2002, telling me that his younger brother, the kindhearted Joe Smerker, had overdosed on heroin. Steve told me that he was found by a tree- nothing else was said. Steve didn’t cry, as best I can recall. The last thing I would expect to receive was a call from Desiree in late January of 2010.

He was tall, gaunt, and had an obsession with Kurt Cobain and Brian May. He loved Carvin guitars. He never drank or smoked, as he didn’t have an interest in either, moreover, his asthma would not blend well with the latter. We met because we were placed together in the same jazz ensemble at Community College of Philadelphia. I walked over to him and introduced myself. His voice wasn’t meek, more akin to someone who just didn’t want to be there. I simply asked him if he wanted to hang out, to which he replied sure! The only problem was that he couldn’t remember where he parked his car!

He had a far better theoretical understanding of music than I did, which is probably why my perfect pitch bothered him. He would go on to consult professors, thus renaming it “relative pitch.” Steve would play any tone on the guitar, and then ask me to guess what tone it was. Nine times out of ten I answered correctly. He hated that I had this innate ability. Quarter note triplets were something he struggled with, which I remedied by showing him a quick trick that I had discovered on my own. He was my only friend in that cesspool of an institution.

Years ago, after receiving the worst news possible, I wrote a heartfelt entry on my website, which was discovered by his mother, Barbara. My webserver at the time crashed and kept no records, so all of my kind words, along with Mrs. Fitzgerald’s, had made their way into the digital purgatory. When his loving girlfriend Desiree, and mother to his only daughter, Alexa, called me that gloomy Winter morning, I should have planned for the worst. After all, the last conversation that ever took place was on AOL Instant Messenger in 2008- my Prededor1030. He’ll never know how much his music influenced me. The bands he turned me on to. Learning of his death would eclipse the passing of Michael Jackson and Whitney Houston combined. I understood him, watched him go from a series of relationships, and had more in common with Steve than I did with my own brother. If I continue in this vein, I’m sure personal details that should be kept between he and I would be revealed, and in the sake of friendship, respect, and honor, I shall leave them out of this.

To all of you who miss him as much as I, please feel free to write on this website. Your comments will not be removed and these words will never die. He lives on through Alexa. He lives on through us, and our memories of him. I know now that I will never get the opportunity to compose another piece of music with him, and that is a tragedy I have to carry. Stephen Smerker, you were, and shall always be, my favorite person.

“What’s the matter? You don’t like donuts?”

Stephen Smerker 10/30/1979 – 1/29/2010

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Gateway Drug Concept: Fact or Fiction

Gateway Drug Concept: Fact or Fiction

Does the illusive “gateway” drug exist? Moreover, is there a single drug, which opens a portal into the bowels of addiction? These, and many more questions must be addressed if one is to understand the gravity of this “gateway” drug hypothesis. Through an in-depth exploration into the “gateway” drug concept, the research will demonstrate, conclusively, that there is no precedent for a nefarious cascading of drugs- and there is no single drug that has the power to alter benign, recreational use, into full-blown addiction.

It should be established, at the commencement, that the etymology of the term “gateway” drug remains uncredited at the time of this writing. In other words, in the history of drug use, the aforementioned term has never been attributed to an individual as the creator. Use of the term, by Robert Dupont, is the most credited, since his use was documented as early as 1985, while he acted as director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Prior to Dupont’s use of the term, “gateway,” there existed two alternative and interchangeable terms: The Gateway Hypothesis and the much older term, the Stepping-Stone Theory (Kandel, 2002). The Gateway Hypothesis was extremely magniloquent and fundamentally flawed, as its position postulated that marijuana eventually lead to the use of narcotics. Kandel’s analyses of said models are most comprehensively expressed in a single sentence, stating, “the investigators concluded that all those who used marijuana would eventually also use heroin” (Kandel, 2002). The application of the debunking motif to this extremely flawed theory is very simple. It began and ended by questioning heroin addicts and discovered that the majority of heroin users had used marijuana, prior to their heroin use. Thus the Stepping-Stone Theory was developed. One cannot presume to build a lasting theory, based entirely on one drug as the cornerstone. Such research could be considered threadbare and speculative.

The key argument over the concept of the “gateway” drug is that it is inherently flawed. By stating that one drug is the causative precursor of induction into illicit drug use, overlooks a multitude of factors. One of the more recent flawed theories came about in the 1970s. The Gateway Hypothesis was based upon the concept of “sequencing.” Sequencing, in short, was the gradual climb from a substance with low potential for addiction, to one with high potential for addiction. As illustrated in the above paragraph, the foundation of this theory was that use of marijuana would lead to narcotic use. While this may be nothing new, it is relevant to illustrate the commonalities and extreme inaccuracies shared between the Stepping-Stone Theory and The Gateway Hypothesis. According to Kandel, “Because of the theoretical and policy implications of the Gateway Hypothesis for understanding adolescent development and the formulation of prevention and intervention programs, a critical examination of the hypothesis is warranted” (Kandel, 2002).

Alcohol and cigarettes were possibly the first drugs to earn the scarlet letter and be associated with the concept of the “gateway” drug. Insidious as they may be, they are merely scapegoats and overly demonized in the United States- any drug can be the primary drug of abuse and need not have any legalized and or illicit predecessor. Applying a superior perspective to alcohol as a “gateway” drug, alcohol is only as dangerous as the amount ingested. It is curious that alcohol is one of the few drugs to be outlawed, during “prohibition,” only to be reintroduced into society. There is no comparison to the “Not Even Once” maxim, which serves as the tenet for the Montana Meth Project. Whereas alcohol may be consumed occasionally, recreationally and in moderation, methamphetamine has the capacity to cause addiction on first use, according to research presented by Thomas M. Siebe’s philanthropic Meth Project initiative (“What Is Meth, Effects of Meth & Facts About Methamphetamine – Meth Project,” 2014). In order to demonstrate the significance of alcohol, it is necessary to compare it to a drug so destructive as methamphetamine. Methamphetamine has no cultural significance, nor it is used in ceremonial rituals or communal experiences. So, this drug is not cross-cultural, but alcohol is. “Both research and common sense tell us that the young people least likely to drink disruptively are those who were introduced to alcohol by moderate-drinking parents, rather than being initiated into drinking by their peers” (Peele & Brodsky, 2007). Peele and Brodsky defend key concepts that differ from other drugs, and annul alcohol as having any “gateway” properties. The authors challenge that,

Looking from the other direction, adolescents and young adults who have had some experience with tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana are somewhat more likely to try “hard” drugs as well. But these generalizations do not mean that “soft” drug use causes, or even predisposes, a young person to use “hard” drugs. (Peele & Brodsky, 2007)

Two prominent psychologists, Jonathan Shedler and Jack discovered that adolescents, who tried illicit drugs and or alcohol, became more resilient and able to regulate use, than frequent drug and alcohol users and those who abstained completely. However, the medical institution is far from innocent and plays a major role in the gateway to medically-induced addiction.

Iatrogenic addiction, or hospital-induced drug addiction is becoming an alarming trend. The genesis of the addiction may begin with a simple surgical procedure, or a visit to the emergency room. Upon discharge, the patient is prescribed something like hydrocodone, a schedule III narcotic analgesic. While many may be deterred by the side effects, or feel no pain relief, others reach a minor euphoric sensation. When the prescription is depleted, the patient may present to their primary care physician, a friend, or to an emergency room. This time, they want something stronger, and may have performed some research to assure that they get a schedule II, like oxycodone. As the former builds a tolerance, they will search for morphine, and then hydromorphone- a drug that is seven milligrams of morphine to every one milligram of hydromorphone (“Dilaudid (Hydromorphone Hydrochloride) Drug Information: Description, User Reviews, Drug Side Effects, Interactions – Prescribing Information at RxList,” n.d.). However, as the supporting literature outlines, oxycodone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, better known as OxyContin, are the most highly prescribed and sought-after of the narcotics. They range from ten milligrams to eighty milligrams, and are generally prescribed for chronic pain where surgery may not be an option. Sadly, this hospital-induced addiction can be thwarted by prescribing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs. While physicians may believe they are alleviating pain, they are producing addicts in a mechanized corruption line (Webster, 2012). The below chart illustrates the mortality rate and the link from opioid use to heroin use- this occurs without any “gateway” drug, least of all marijuana.

“Fewer than one in five non-medical users of OxyContin in our sample reported that pain relief was the reason for initiating non-medical OxyContin use” (Grau et al., 2007).

It is essential to note that marijuana may not prove to be a “gateway” drug, but it is far from harmless. The misinformation over the legalization of marijuana debate is immeasurable, as is the equally rivaled medical information. To begin with, the legalization of marijuana in the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Canada, was reversed after the innocuous drug showed deleterious results after a three-fold spike in use following said legalization. Of the many myths, surrounding marijuana use, the most disturbing is the wanton misconception that it has use in medicine. To date, the only FDA approved form of marijuana is Marinol, which are essentially the anti-emetic properties of the drug without the “high.” Marinol produces an effect known as drug-induced hyperphagia- colloquially known as “the munchies.” This synthetic form of THC, marijuana’s active constituent, is administered in a capsule, and passes through the gastrointestinal tract where it is readily absorbed. Marinol is mainly prescribed to cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, and AIDS patients to prevent a condition known as “wasting,” due large in part to their lack of appetite (Tandy, 2005). What causes the drug to be insalubrious is that long-term use has shown impairment of memory recall and slowed reaction time. Moreover, the advocates of medical marijuana fail to comprehend key concepts regarding human anatomy and physiology. Human lungs are designed to inhale oxygen, through delicate membranes within the bronchial passages, leading to small capillary beds. This is how red blood cells become oxygenated. Now, consider replacing oxygen with smoke- a thick substance that coats the passages of the bronchi and the microscopic capillary beds. Simply stated, human lungs were not designed for smoke inhalation (Martini, Nath, Bartholomew, & Welch, 2009).

Whether it is for some unforeseen political agenda, or a blind quest to reveal the root of addiction, the “gateway” concept has more oppositional literature than the concept’s advocates are able to produce. From alcohol to methamphetamine, narcotics and marijuana to heroin, there is no compelling evidence to reinforce the argument that any of the aforementioned drugs hold gateway properties- save narcotics of lesser abuse potential to narcotics of greater abuse potential.


Dilaudid (Hydromorphone Hydrochloride) Drug Information: Description, User Reviews, Drug Side Effects, Interactions – Prescribing Information at RxList. (n.d.). Retrieved June 18, 2014, from

Golub, A., Johnson, B. D., & Dunlap, E. (2005). Subcultural evolution and illicit drug use*. Addiction Research & Theory, 13(3), 217-229. doi: 10.1080/16066350500053497

Grau, L. E., Dasgupta, N., Grau, L. E., Dasgupta, N., Harvey, A. P., Grau, L. E., … Heimer, R. (2007). Illicit Use of Opioids: Is OxyContin® a “Gateway Drug”? American Journal on Addictions, 16(3), 166-173. doi: 10.1080/10550490701375293

Hall, W., & Lynskey, M. (2005). Is cannabis a gateway drug? Testing hypotheses about the relationship between cannabis use and the use of other illicit drugs. Drug and Alcohol Review, 24(1), 39-48. doi: 10.1080/09595230500126698

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IHPS: A Genetic Journey


Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is a stricture of the pyloric sphincter, primarily affecting Caucasians. IHPS may be genetically inherited, environmental, or it may be a multifactorial trait. Throughout all of the research compiled and available to the public, the consensus is uneven- no two schools of thought agree on the exact cause. Research would indicate a higher prevalence of males inheriting the trait, especially first-born males. If pyloric stenosis is thought to be multifactorial, or even environmental, then what are these factors and when do they coalesce to express a hypertrophic pyloric sphincter? The average case of IHPS presents in infants within two to eight weeks after birth. That is an important detail, as there is no empirical rationale for the latency of IHPS manifestation. Is there a relationship between feeding methods and rates of incidence? Can sleeping positions be a possible factor, and if so, to what extent do they cause IHPS? One of the leading theories involves the concept of a mutation, which allows penetrance. In summation, if it is not multifactorial and linked to environmental factors, then the etiology must be genetic.


IHPS: A Genetic Journey

To begin with an inference that the condition is genetically inherited, one must take into account why signs and symptoms are not present directly at the moments after delivery. This latency of two to eight weeks indicates an unknown activator to those who harbor said gene. This unknown variable may very well be the cause of expression in infants who possess the gene for IHPS. Danish physician Mads Melbye conducted research, on IHPS, at Statens Serum Institut, in Denmark. Upon the conclusion of his findings, he reported the following:

The familial aggregation of pyloric stenosis is convincingly strong and suggests that specific genes determine who develops the condition. The infant is apparently not born with pyloric stenosis, but develops the disease after some weeks. There appears to be an external factor that triggers the disease in a genetically predisposed infant. We now seek to identify the genetic profile and if we succeed the disease
could potentially be prevented (Melbye, 2010).

One of Doctor Melbye’s students, Camilla Krogh M.D. wrote the following statement in her thesis on IHPS, “…with a heritability estimate of 87%, it seems that familial aggregation is primarily explained by shared genes that may affect responses to postnatal factors” (Krogh, 2010). IHPS is extremely common and the most prevalent condition, in newborns, requiring surgery (MacMahon, 2006). The etiology of the condition is unknown, and to date there exists no test to identify whether or not one’s offspring possesses it, other than the hallmark signs and symptoms, which often appear around the first eight weeks in newborns (Taylor, Cass, & Holland, 2012). The trait is characterized by projectile vomiting immediately after a feeding (MacMahon, 2006). IHPS occurs more often in males than females with a ratio of 4:1 (Krogh et al., 2010). Curiously, the manifestation is even greater in first-born males (Taylor, Cass, & Holland, 2012). In some instances, a child presents with symptoms that mimic colic, while the pathology is found to be IHPS (Onesimo, Giorgio, Monaco, & Fundarò, 2012). At the time of this writing, the only reversal for IHPS is pyloromyotomy (Everett et al., 2008).

MacMahon (2006) theorized that the practice of placing an infant on its stomach, which was thought to reduce sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), was a possible factor in the development of IHPS (MacMahon, 2006). Other studies have focused on the sleeping positions of infants, but have found no substantial data to corroborate (Sommerfield et al., 2008). In both studies, SIDS and IHPS numbers declined without a definitive explanation. An unproved but compelling theorem is that IHPS is a secondary condition, with other abdominal and gastroinsestinal factors involved (Namini, Raisolsadat, Omid, & Mirzade, 2013).

IHPS may be genetically inherited on multiple accounts according to Peeters, Benninga, and Hennekam (2012). Various pathways and proteins are involved in the matrix of the molecular composition of smooth muscle tissue. In this delicate network lies the opportunity for mutation, thus leading to penetrance (Everett et al., 2008). The causative agent involved in IHPS expression may be located on chromosome 16q24 (Everett et al., 2008). Svenningsson (2012) presents evidence for the occurrence of IHPS as being multifactorial, and notes that neuronal nitric oxide synthase, otherwise known as the (NOS1) gene, as being recognized in the manifestation IHPS (Svenningsson et al., 2012). Incorporating the NOS1 gene as absolute proof of genetic causation, multiple locations on two chromosomes have been directly linked to the expression of IHPS- chromosomes 2q24 and 6p21(Svenningsson et al., 2012). Everett states:

We have mapped a second locus for monogenic IHPS through an SNP-based genome scan of a multigenerational pedigree. The sex-segregation male-to-female ratio in family IHPS078 is 1.7:1. In our resource, the IHPS male sex bias tends to be less pronounced in familial cases (2.2:1 in the 14 additional families used in this study) than in sporadic cases (5.2:1 in our resource of 358 trios; data not shown). This suggests that underlying sex-specific factors are of greater importance in sporadic cases, or that familial cases occur because of a more highly penetrant allele to which females do not have a sex-specific protection.

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Sovereignty in Medicine

It would not be considered a bold statement to proclaim that the institution of medicine has progressed a great deal over the course of a mere few centuries. Its earliest roots would be found in physicians that would go an entire year without ever seeing a single patient. Such a prestigious career was once the occupation of well-educated paupers who were forced to find other means of income to support their families. If a twenty-first century physician were told to buy a farm, they would most likely laugh or be extremely insulted. Sovereign really is the watchword when the topics of medicine are brought into discussions. Everyone in healthcare, and every living being strives for autonomy- for freedom to do as one wishes. Medicine has come from a time where surgeons would strike their patients to render them unconscious. Due to adventurous medical explorers, we now possess anesthesia (“Accidental Inventions,” 2008). Record keeping and evidence-based practice would ultimately follow.

Advancements in aseptic technique would decrease mortality rates, radically (Bellis, 2013). As stated before, there is a specific ideology that stands true about every discipline. As is the case with any institution, it will advance over time. In other words, given a long enough timeline and something will change from what it was to what is will become. “Modern medicine is one of those extraordinary works of reason: an elaborate system of specialized knowledge, technical procedures, and rules of behavior” (Starr, 1982, p. 3).

In the beginning, the agrarian culture did not accept physicians as they are accepted today. To these early adopters, all forms of illness could be treated in the home. The similarity to their early modality of thinking is impressive, especially when one considers how much of the healing process takes place after an appointment with a physician. However, eighteenth century America had a strong bias toward modern healthcare, which was still in its infancy. Communication between the patient and physician was a magnificent issue, as the telephone was linked, primarily, between the physician and the pharmacist. Essentially, this meant that patient communication was almost non-existent, as far as the telephone was concerned (Starr, 1982). Another inhibitor of patient and physician interaction was the lack of transportation. The earliest physicians worked for free, and to a greater extent, suffered the cost of transportation, out-of-pocket. By stark contrast, a practicing surgeon was paid for his or her services- no question. Drawing on other physicians of the time, not included in Starr’s work, one may find this trend of service-for-free more common than before, in the chronicles of Dr. Jackson:

The physician, who worked in Pittsburgh, then Philadelphia, during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, was rarely paid by his patients; his only request was that he be allowed to keep what he called the “fbdy,” short for “foreign body” (Cappello, 2011).

Noble and intrepid Dr. Chevalier Quixote Jackson would go on to invent and perfect tools for foreign body extraction until his last days.

Still, where was the sovereignty of the physician and the medical establishment during this time? To begin, William Buchan’s publication placed medical treatment in the hands of the layperson, thus causing the contradiction to physician autonomy, or sovereignty. Medical advice can be a dangerous piece of knowledge if not explicitly conveyed by a person with medical training. Physicians who took to private practice upheld a monopoly over a specific geographical area, causing a conflict between doctors (Starr, 1982). This territorial battle was discouraging to most physicians, largely in part because it hindered their ability to climb he status ladder. Doctors would also find that they were not developing the power that they had hoped. As the occupation grew larger, the fact remained that most physicians were not very educated, and took to teeth pulling, taking up jobs as a pharmacist and other odd jobs, often reserved for a commoner. The construct of the physician at this time was that of a person who was trying desperately to attain a level of social status, such as the English model of a physician (Starr, 1982). Ultimately, there was no dominion, control, autonomy or power for the physician. It would take much more than a title to convince a population that a physician was as necessary as air. The profession would take a giant leap forward when Johns Hopkins University made effective the minimum mandatory college degree before being accepted to the university (Starr, 1982). This invoked the American Medical Association (AMA) to reform all other medical schools.

The corporatization of the medical industry would only be possible after a series of scientific breakthroughs. In no particular order, several pieces of instrumentation made it possible for the collaboration of multiple physicians to share information collectively. One such example of this communal observation is the x-ray as well as the electrocardiograph. The discovery of ether was monumental. The stethoscope made possible for the listening of internal organs, thus allowing an onslaught of sound to be interpreted and lead to a diagnosis (Starr, 1982). The otoscope and the laryngoscope were major instruments in the inspection of the esophagus and ears. As microbiology was taken more seriously, it led to specific advancements in the treatment of diseases caused by specific bacteria (Starr, 1982). The more tools a physician had at his or her disposal, the more accurate the diagnosis would be. In summation, the enhancement of science opened the medical industry to the birth of the hospital. With this new advent would come greater salaries, for physicians, than ever before. All the while the AMA had been hard at work, prohibiting the disparaging rhetoric and unfounded accusations of physicians by pharmaceutical companies. Alas, the inevitable corporatization would find its place in the hospital and manufacturing companies.

When discussing hospitals, it is illustrated that most hospitals were designed for the poor. As such they were called almshouses. Translated, it means a charitable house, which, in this case, is quite apt as the poor were the majority of the hospital’s census. Alas, as this timeline continued, the impoverished were no longer the majority census and the first hospitals were taking root. Only the privileged and or wealthy were privy to mental health. The first hospitals were used for isolation, the indigent and travelers. In other words, they were used for those who had no home or were very ill.

Why were physicians opposed to corporate enterprise in medicine? One need not travel too far into Starr’s text to receive a compelling answer. “For a surgeon or physician to accept a position with a manufacturing company was to earn the contempt of his colleagues.” This quote is not that of Paul Starr, but of Alice Hamilton, a physician, muckraker, and leader in the occupational health filed of the period (“Changing the Face of Medicine | Dr. Alice Hamilton,” n.d.). One can propose that as industry grew, workers were prone to more accidents. Why did medical corporate enterprising grow? The growing need for the staffing of so-called “railroad surgeons” became essential. This cascaded into other industries as well, such as coal mining and lumber. Indeed, it seems practical and necessary to have skilled medical personnel on the premises, even though it was frowned upon for physicians to be practicing this type of corporate medicine. Be that as it may, these positions offered physicians steady employment, where elsewhere, the institution of medicine was becoming corrupt. In the opening of chapter six, Starr (1982) states, “so many of its practitioners saw themselves—beleaguered by unscientific sectarians and quacks who preyed on the credulous sick; by druggists who plagiarized their prescriptions and gave free medical advice to customers; by too many of their own profession…” (p. 198).

In conclusion, physicians wanted to make an honest living working for a company. This was the advent, where physicians saw the approaching age of collegiality. Though their peers may have found work as a private physician, other occupations were still very lucrative. Thus, the need to go where the money was is a logical modality. This is where they found sovereignty- in the wards of hospitals, in emergency rooms, in operating rooms, and on-site at manufacturing facilities. To think outside the box would be to say that this occupation never deserved to be put into place. Imagine it all removed. Would we be better off if everything else progressed, but medicine remained stagnant and unnecessary? How could society benefit? Culturally, our Eastern neighbors do not subscribe to the same radical approaches that Western medicine does. So, who is better off? Perhaps American medicine has much to learn, and a long way until it reaches a point of status-equality and less emphasis on sovereignty, rule, power, control, authority, and dominance.



Accidental Inventions. (2008). Accidental Invention of Ether Anesthesia. Retrieved May 22, 2013, from

Bellis, M. (2013). History of Antiseptics – Ignaz Semmelweis. History of Antiseptics – Ignaz Semmelweis. Retrieved May 22, 2013, from

Cappello, M. (2011). Chevalier Quixote Jackson: Foreign Bodies. Foreign Bodies. Retrieved June 6, 2013, from

Changing the Face of Medicine | Dr. Alice Hamilton. (n.d.). U.S National Library of Medicine. Retrieved June 6, 2013, from

Starr, P. (1982). The social transformation of American medicine. New York, NY: Basic Books.

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Manayunk: An Urban Hike

As I began my urban hike, through the streets of Manayunk, it had not occurred to me how much things had changed over time. What was once a middle-class community, composed of Polish, Irish, and Italian immigrants, is now an urban sprawl of gentrification. Manayunk is a borough, which is settled along the Schuylkill River. It is a part of Philadelphia, however, instead of calling it Northwest or Southeast Philadelphia, it is referred to by its Lenape Native American name, Manayunk- roughly translated to mean, “the place we go to drink” (Kostova, 2006). Each division of Manayunk, based solely on nationality, had a corresponding church for the parishioners to attend mass. The Polish had Saint Josephat’s. The Italians had Saint Mary’s. The Irish had Holy Family. None of these churches exists today. Their steeples are a mere relic of a time that once was. The reason they are referred to in the past tense is that they have consolidated all of the churches into a single church, and renamed it Saint Blaise. Perhaps the new, younger inhabitants of Manayunk are more interested in things other than worship. The hospital, in which I was born, is called Roxborough Memorial Hospital. They stopped performing deliveries in the mid nineties. Most of the services they once offered, one would have to find elsewhere. A brief history of Manayunk can be seen in a YouTube video, by Nik Stamps, though it is over forty-two minutes in length (Stamps, 2013).

Most of the families, who occupied Manayunk, were poor and had to perform manual labor to provide for their families. They came directly from their former countries, in search of freedom. They thrived in the new borough they had adopted from the Lenape Indians. The older occupations were construction, iron-working, carpentry, bakeries and corner stores. The corner store, or deli, was a staple of each nationality. They created a convenient shopping experience for the neighborhood, and due to the amount of them, you were able to obtain consumables of the other cultures as well. They were not only convenient, but perhaps very lucrative alternatives to supermarkets, which may not have been adopted at the time. There are no more family-owned pharmacies. They have all been replaced by corporate-owned CVS pharmacies. Ridge Avenue, a major center of commerce, has more fast food restaurants than I can count. None of these promote healthy living, but somehow they remain open to the public. These are just some of the aspects my grandparents taught me. As they are no longer living, I am forced to draw upon memory. Tragically, the corner stores are all gone, and converted into corner housing. This and much more would not be the only changes I would note on my urban hike (Spector, 2004).

My grandparents had no formal education, but their children did. My mother and father attended college and by the time I turned eighteen, college had become a requirement. However, as my grandparents passed away, so did the rest of their cohort. In the wake of their passing, they left behind real estate, as their houses were now vacant. These vacant houses were not inhabited by younger relatives, but sold off, cheaply, to the wealthy. This practice continued as the face of Manayunk changed. Public libraries were raised to the ground and replaced with condominiums. A small pasture at the end of Sheldon Street once gave the greatest view of center city Philadelphia. That view is now eclipsed by the towering apartments, which occupy a place where neighbors joined together to watch fireworks, every Fourth of July.

Just walking up Hermitage Street, I see people in their early thirties jogging. They are not in packs like some sort of marathon, but scattered about as I continue taking notes. This simple act of physical fitness is something my grandparents were too old to do, and my parents never adopted. Surely, it is a great health promotion, but perhaps they received enough exercise performing manual labor. But alas, here the joggers come toward me and behind me, and I found myself asking a question. Where are the children? If I close my eyes, and wait long enough, I should hear the sounds of Mr. Softy, the ice cream truck, and local playgrounds filled with laughter. When I close my eyes, I hear car horns honking, lawnmower engines, and the stomping of jogging feet. This could explain why most of the local schools have been shut down, just like the churches. Perhaps my mother and father had offspring at a young age, which may not have been frowned upon in the late seventies? By comparison, these new inhabitants are just beginning to create career goals for themselves, and maybe the thought of having children does not factor into their lives. In fact, passersby do not seem to be wearing wedding rings at all. What does this mean?

Occupations once performed by older generations such as carpentry, masonry, painting and landscaping are all subcontracted to businesses, the likes of Home Depot and Lowes. There are no more local hardware stores and the new population of Manayunk does not present an image that they have the time for this type of work- I did not see any young people performing these jobs, however, there were many Hispanics performing said jobs. It could be stated that the largest attraction to Manayunk is Main Street. Just walking from one end to the other, you can see and hear the sounds of soft elevator music and forks scraping plates. “While gentrification had a negative impact on the social and cultural community, it has helped preserve the historic built environment on Main Street as well as the homes that climb up the hill perpendicular to Main Street” (Fisher, n.d.). Little do they know or would they care to know that the very street they dine upon was filled with vagrants and wreaked of urine in the nineties. It is possible that the gentrification of Manayunk was made possible by the rehabilitation of Main Street. If one increases commerce and fine dining, it could attract a populous inclined to buy cheap property.

Manayunk is no longer the diverse melting pot that it used to be, especially when my grandparents were still living. The transplanted inhabitants of Manayunk are more educated, work jobs that do not require manual labor, and drive expensive cars. Strangely, there is no racial harmony anymore. Everyone I see driving, jogging and walking are Caucasian. The only place I experienced anyone of color, was under the elevated railway on Cresson Street. There were families sitting in lawn chairs, enjoying each other’s company. It was not hard to locate a brief YouTube video that illustrates Cresson Street (“Cresson Street, Manayunk,” 2012). This is what I was used to seeing when my grandparents were alive and well. Clearly, it would take more than an urban hike, as I am presented with only a snapshot, to divine why one ethnicity holds true to their neighborhood, while the rest has seemed to vanish. Looking at the ground, Cresson Street is composed of cobblestone. I remember a time when every street in Manayunk was composed entirely of cobblestone. Now, they are all covered in asphalt. Like the asphalt covers the cobblestone, and the new condominiums cover the library, I feel like a stranger in the very place I once called home.

In conclusion, this urban hike has made me explore areas of Manayunk that I had not seen in years. There have been so many renovations, restorations and new developments, that parts of it feel alien. To a certain extent, I felt foreign in a neighborhood that I was raised in and have so much history. There are no familiar faces, and no familiar stores. There are only the ghosts of what was once there when I was growing up. If the new population ever decides to have children, it would be my wish that they understand what a culturally dense place they are living in, and how lucky they are. As curiosity strikes me, I would like to make a wish, and that wish would be for one person to take the same urban hike that I did. Guiding them would not be an issue. What I would hope to gain is their unbiased perception- I want to know what they think of Manayunk, not knowing what it used to be. That is my wish.



Cresson Street, Manayunk. (2012, May 21). YouTube. Retrieved May 30, 2013, from

Fisher, G. A. (2006). The gentrification of Manayunk (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 30, 2013, from

Kostova, E. (2006). MANAYUNK: A NEIGHBORHOOD JOURNAL [Scholarly project]. In Manayunk: A Neighborhood Journal. Retrieved May 30, 2013, from;c=mqr;c=mqrarchive;idno=act2080.0045.117;rgn=main;view=text;xc=1;g=mqrg

Spector, R. E. (2004). Cultural diversity in health & illness. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Stamps, N. (2013, May 14). Roxborough & Manayunk Wissahickon. YouTube. Retrieved May 30, 2013, from

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Happy Friday The 13th Fuckers!

Happy Friday the 13th! Today children, we’re breaking all of the rules. In a few more sentences, you’ll see the decay of my average writing style in exchange for a more juvenile form. The reason I will write this way is because it will be more funny, crass, and quite frankly, why purport that I’m someone or something who I’m not?

To begin, I hate belief systems. They are, as a wise man once said, designed to scare and control primitive people. While I don’t see today’s victim causing holy wars or beheading journalists, Jehovah’s Witnesses (JW hereafter) are the worst pests for which there exists no repellent. Any given day of the week, they can be seen in your neighborhood, decked out in attire fit for pimps and queens. They approach your door with smiles ready to sell you on some shit you never wanted. Trespassing is a better word for what they actually do. All bullshit and jokes aside, the best deterrent for these fuckers is a dog.Let your dog outside and they are sure to stay where they belong- off your property. Of course you could opt to place some sort of signage in front of your house, but let’s face it, why fuck up your house when you aren’t the problem. There are other things which come to mind…

In my line of work, it is incredibly hard to help them. When they come in and present their bullshit, I think to myself, “you believe this, so why are you here?” Such an ass-backwards type of thinking, these parasites would rather face death than receive blood products.

No thanks, I’ve got tiger blood.

Yes, you read that right. Perhaps you were already aware of this little fact. What you may not know is that they are not allowed to own pictures, celebrate birthdays, vote, salute the American flag, and a whole bunch of shit that makes Scientology look good. But I digress; let’s get back to the blood thing. The constituents of blood are as follows: erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes, plasma, serum albumin, anti-bodies, proteins and electrolytes. Nothing’s weird there. Everything you have just read is necessary to maintain homeostasis within the human body. However, these brain-dead bastards have it in their belief system that taking the important and lifesaving component of human blood into their circulatory system is somehow wrong. This translates to a higher mortality rate. Epic fail. A 2002 medical article by Khadra et al states:

“In the CEMD the very high risk of mortality in women who refuse blood transfusion was highlighted. The death rate in this group was 1 per 1,000 maternities compared with an expected incidence of less than 1 per 100, 000 maternities.”

Our next insult is child molestation. Would you believe that they have one of the highest rates of unreported cases of child molestation? These accounts are made public through DHS, and other government agencies that investigate cults, as well as defectors of “the watchtower.”

These little fuckers had the right idea.

But we should also understand that just as any other instance of molestation cases, these go unreported, largely due to the silence of the victimized. They are brainwashed from a very young age.


We should be asking ourselves, what asshole is responsible for this shit? Who founded a cult so determined on recruiting that you don’t even have to leave your house; they’ll come to yours. Who is this asshole? Charles Taze Russell. Born in Pennsylvania, in 1852, this jerkoff recruited an army of like-minded assholes who easily digested what he was throwing up. He was most likely not the first to molest his followers, but he would not be the last.

He’s right!

In summation, I hate them. I wish they would all fall off the face of the planet. Moving on to another neighborhood just means that they are migrating instead of dying. My words are harsh but their religion is worse. To quote the late Chuck Schuldiner, “If you doubt what I say, I will make you believe.” The following closing is lengthy, but necessary. This is a list of everything JWs are prohibited from performing on a daily basis. Happy Friday the 13th, Jehovah’s Witnesses!

141 Things Jehovah’s Witnesses Can’t Do

  1. Belong to another organization or club for the purpose of socializing with nonbelievers
  2. Have best friends and activity buddies who are not Jehovah’s Witnesses
  3. Associate with people outside their organization when it is not necessary
  4. Attend social functions sponsored by their employer unless attendance is required
  5. Associate with coworkers after business hours in a social settings
  6. Disagree with their organization’s rules and code of conduct
  7. Disagree with their organization’s doctrines
  8. Contribute to the Presidential Campaign Fund on their tax return
  9. Join the armed forces and defend their country
  10. Say the Pledge of Allegiance
  11. Salute the flag
  12. Vote
  13. Run for leadership in their organization
  14. Run for leadership in any organization
  15. Take a stand for any political issue inside their organization
  16. Take a stand on any political or ‘worldly’ issue outside of their organization
  17. Campaign for a political candidate
  18. Hold political office
  19. Discuss politics
  20. Be a union steward or shop steward
  21. Actively be involved in a union strike
  22. Use a gun for protection against humans
  23. Become a police officer if a gun is required
  24. Wear military uniforms or clothing associated with war
  25. Take yoga classes and practice the discipline of yoga. See Is Yoga For Christians?
  26. Smoke tobacco and cigars
  27. Work full time selling tobacco and cigars
  28. Attend Alcoholics Anonymous
  29. Donate blood
  30. Have blood transfusions
  31. Read books, magazines, publications, and literature from other religions.
  32. Buy anything from a church store
  33. Buy something at a church garage sale
  34. Donate items to a church run store
  35. Shop at the Salvation Army
  36. Work for the Salvation Army
  37. Work for another church
  38. Play competitive sports on a school team
  39. Play competitive sports professionally
  40. Run for class president
  41. Become a cheerleader
  42. Go to the school prom or school dance.
  43. Attend class reunions
  44. Be hypnotized
  45. Accept Jesus as their mediator, 1 Timothy 2:5. See Mediator
  46. Join the Boy Scouts
  47. Join the Girl Guides
  48. Join the YMCA.
  49. Serve on jury duty
  50. Study psychology, philosophy, sociology, and viewpoints that might shake their faith.
  51. Attend other Christian churches
  52. Attend nondenominational churches
  53. Attend non Christian churches
  54. Get married in another church
  55. Dating non believers is discouraged
  56. Casual dating is discouraged
  57. Dating someone without the intent of getting married
  58. Having sex before marriage
  59. Breaking an engagement can result in disciplinary action
  60. Marriage to non believers is not recommended
  61. Be gay or lesbian. Homosexuality is not acceptable.
  62. Throw rice at a wedding
  63. Get divorced unless the reason is adultery
  64. Can’t remarry unless their ex commits fornication first
  65. Toast drinks
  66. Buy a raffle ticket
  67. Play bingo
  68. Gamble
  69. Sing any holiday songs
  70. Sing the National Anthem
  71. Celebrate Christmas – Why?
  72. Celebrate New Years Eve – Why?
  73. Celebrate Easter – Why?
  74. Celebrate Mother’s Day – Why?
  75. Celebrate Father’s Day
  76. Celebrate birthdays – Why?
  77. Celebrate Thanksgiving
  78. Celebrate Flag Day
  79. Celebrate Veteran’s Day
  80. Celebrate Independence Day
  81. Celebrate Saint Patrick’s Day
  82. Celebrate Valentine’s Day
  83. Celebrate Halloween – Why?
  84. Celebrate Hanukkah
  85. Accept holiday gifts – Why?
  86. Celebrate any holiday except the death of Jesus – Why?
  87. Partake in the bread and wine that represents Christ unless they are part of the 144,000
  88. Make holiday artwork for school
  89. Engage in holiday parties at school
  90. Take on a leadership role in school
  91. Porneia
  92. Do suggestive and immodest dancing in a public place
  93. Attend a class, workshop, or seminar, sponsored by another church
  94. Attend social events or fund raisers sponsored by another church
  95. Use of bad language (curse words) is discouraged
  96. Wear blue jeans, shorts, and casual clothing at the Kingdom Hall
  97. Wear pants at a Kingdom Hall if you’re a woman
  98. Wear revealing clothes or skirts that are too short (looked down upon)
  99. Wear long hair or facial hair if you’re a man (depends on the local customs of the country you live in)
  100. Body piercings are discouraged
  101. Tattoos are discouraged
  102. State or imply that the Watchtower is not run by Jehovah God.
  103. Have discussions and express Bible based viewpoints that contradict the organization’s beliefs
  104. Say anything negative about their organization. JW’s must ‘speak in agreement’ and be ‘like-minded’.
  105. Consider other religious beliefs as valid and truthful.
  106. Acknowledge any prayer spoken by a non believer as valid
  107. Take another Jehovah’s Witness to court
  108. Wear or own a cross
  109. Own any religious picture
  110. Own any religious statue
  111. Engage in idolatry
  112. Believe in miracles (except those found in the Bible) See Miracles
  113. Believe in ghosts
  114. Witchcraft
  115. Black magic
  116. White magic
  117. Consult with a psychic or become one
  118. Study tarot cards, get a reading or give a reading
  119. Study numerology or get a reading
  120. Dabble in ESP (extrasensory perception), dowsing, or divination
  121. Use a tool such as a pendulum to access information from the spiritual realm
  122. Attempt to communicate with departed spirits
  123. Attend a seance
  124. Believe in good luck or say things such as ‘Good luck to you’. Why?
  125. Believe in anything superstitious
  126. Prophesy
  127. Speaking in tongues
  128. Laying on of hands
  129. Energy healing such as Reiki
  130. Read their horoscope
  131. Study astrology or zodiac signs
  132. Combat training, boxing, or martial arts
  133. Go to heaven unless they are part of the 144,000
  134. Worship Jesus as God
  135. Idolize any celebrity or love and admire them to excess
  136. Women can’t be elders
  137. Women can’t be ministerial servants (assistants to the elders)
  138. Divulge secret information to enemies of their organization and those not entitled to know. See Theocratic Warfare
  139. Greet or talk with disfellowshipped persons except for immediate family living in the same house (except for rare exceptions)
  140. Associate with disfellowshipped persons except for immediate family living in the same house
  141. Keep secrets from the organization. Jehovah’s Witnesses must report friends and family members who break any of the Watchtower rules.

    The only solution.


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To Live Forever

There’s nothing I can write that you don’t already know. That is not to mean that this is worthless drivel, only that our shared time together covered everything. The entire expanse of human emotion and expression was a reciprocal open door of sharing. Now that I no longer have you in my life, I cannot share with you, the things I once was able.

It is quite painful having so much of you locked in my mind, to the point that I could create a binary copy of you. Akin to the mythology of the phoenix, you could rise from your own ashes and speak to me once again and tell me “this too shall pass.” However, my memories are not you- nothing will ever be you. You were far too unique to be duplicated in any fashion. Even as I write songs about you, I wonder which piece of you is being placed into them, and ask myself questions. Would you approve? Would you enjoy it?

If there is anything after this, then you know I discovered your “angel” and will continue to protect, provide and love her. If you could know that, then you know that Gabriel remembers you, still. If my rationale is sound, then the more people who remember you, the more of you exists and will live forever.

Where blew a flower may a flower no more

Lift its head to the blows of the rain;

Though they be mad and dead as nails,

Heads of the characters hammer through daisies;

Break in the sun till the sun breaks down,

And death shall have no dominion.

Diane S. Kowalewski

September 19, 1952 – June 25, 2012

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Keratosis Pilaris – No Cure For Misinformation

It is widely known that the internet is full of misinformation. Akin to my strong dislike for the self-policing entity known as Wikipedia, there are multitudes of websites that offer nothing.

As I began research on a genetically acquired medical condition, known as keratosis pilaris, I discovered a site, whose domain name is the name of the condition- save the fact that it is a dotnet and not a dotcom. Without further ado, I shall demonstrate this hilarious piece of information, unadulterated, exactly as it exists on their site.


Keratosis Pilaris Clearasil Vanishing Cream

For those penis is applied against skin cancer indications. Scalp acne happens you have your refrigerator. However after for this anti-cancer hasn’t been validated.

Its likely to triggered by environment. Use mild enough to involve preventative. Sun screens and utilized in facial lines along with skin problems. Swelling ideas of other available to uncovered to smoke along with a brief bath in corn starch based baby powder helps along with a coupon having a skin problems microbial and also have insufficient.

These remedies for a variety for treating in diet. This is among the cold months season make sure you implement SPF 15-30 for your encounter. Bear in mind that’s since this is probably be so time intensive.

However found you are able to deal with photo voltaic lentigines in ethnic groups. Journal of Cosmetic Skin Care Items

It is important indicator of your body and produce lower your is straightforward. Simply rub fresh lemon juice. It’s also stated it may reduce the look of facial lines and tension and neck. Women could also find several various chemical substance if your atmosphere. Large amount of ladies with wonderful at any seasons (summer time UVA is rather use general and grime out of your body. Keep the skin greatly tender in addition to could be an cream in your face or two that they’re made using this method does not mean they’ve have blond to medium bowl mix together a teaspoon is sufficient evening eye cream that consists of extracellular growth and delicate skin of this these in your body please visit the extent of infections when using only keratosis pilaris clearasil vanishing cream around the subjecting the expert Linda Rodin incorporate a paste. The paste may then be relevant to arise from overproduction which will requires more protective effects or unwanted effects. For instance by over actives will block too works among the bloodstream ships in your body. Whatever you lay lower the game titles for example seafood and reptiles have scaly patches having a chance of skin cancer patients have dark skinned people cannot be avoided pretty much naked mainly under the sun. It may hold an astounding to sore scratchy skin regenerating protective biological cosmetic procedure. Why Many People Have Beautiful here are the very best treatment rash frequently reoccurrence patients to obtaining within the process your skin dryer. Oily skin should focus completely natural naturally but the very best methods flooding the ability to be used on conditions in the skin overall along with other natural defense against inside.

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